Кашкадарьинская область, Республика Узбекистан
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Shakhrisabz is a majestic city with a rich history, which was founded in the distant VIII (8) century BC. e. The ancient name of the city is «Kesh». Shakhrisabz is literally buried in greenery. There are a lot of flowers and different trees, flowering gardens and mountain slopes. By the way, the name of the city in translation into Russian means «green city».
Here, in the southeastern part of the city of Shakhrisabz, there is one of the most beautiful and unique historical monuments of Uzbekistan — the Dorut-Tillyavat Memorial Complex, dating from the late 14th — early 15th centuries. The name of this complex is translated as «a place for reflection, contemplation.»
Dorut-Tillyavat is a funerary ensemble that previously included not only the Shamsiddin Kulyal mosque, the Makbarat Ulugbek (Gumbazi-Seyidan) mosque and the Kok-Gumbaz mosque that have survived to our time, but also the most beautiful tombs and madrassas. It should be noted that it is here, in the Dorut-Tillyavat memorial complex, that the ashes of the great Amir Temur’s father, Emir Taragay, rest. For this reason, the madrasah in which the Emir Taragay was buried was called the mausoleum.
Shamsiddin Kulala Mosque
The appearance of the Dorut-Tillyavat memorial complex is inextricably linked with the name Shamsiddin Kulyal, who was a very famous and highly respected religious figure of that time, and also the founder of the Sufism movement. In addition, Shamsiddin Kulyal was a spiritual mentor both of Emir Taragay, and of his son — Amir Temur, as well as the mentor of Sheikh Bahauddin Nakshbendi. It’s hard to believe, but this man comes from the usual kind of potters, hence the nickname «Kulal», which means «potter». However, this did not prevent him from obtaining respect and reverence among all the people and the nobility. Amir Temur claimed that it was thanks to Shamsiddin Kulyal that he was able to achieve all that he achieved during his lifetime. In gratitude for this, Sahibkiran erected on the territory of the present Dorut-Tillyavat ensemble of amazing beauty a mosque named after Shamsiddin Kulyal.
The mosque «Kok-Gumbaz» was built on the site where the foundation of the pre-Mongolian era was earlier built, on the initiative of Amir Temur’s grandson, one of the most famous astronomers and philosophers Mirzo Ulugbek. The construction of the mosque was completed in 1435. Soon students began to study in the madrassas, and until the end of the XIX century, they continued their education here. It should be noted that this structure was also the largest and majestic Friday mosque in the whole of Shahrizabs. By the way, the name of the mosque «Kok-Gumbaz» was not chosen by chance, in translation into Russian it means «Blue Dome». A huge dome towers over the madrassah, skillfully covered with ceramic tiles of heavenly color. And along the entire length of the dome white inscriptions are laid out the following inscription: «Domination belongs to Allah, wealth belongs to Allah.»
Mausoleum of Gumbazi-Seyidan (Makbara Ulugbek)
A few years later, in 1438, near the mausoleum of Shamsiddin Kulyala, the great Ulugbek started construction of an equally beautiful building than the «Kuk Gumbaz» mosque. This building became a makbarat, i.e. a burial vault intended for relatives and descendants of Ulugbek himself. To this day, ancient inscriptions on marble tombstones have been preserved, where the names of the Sayyids are mentioned (an honorary title for Muslims, whose genealogy originated from the Prophet Muhammad). Hence the name of the mausoleum «Gumbazi-Seyidan», which means «Dome of Seyid.»