ул.Регистанская, город Самарканд
Самаркандская область, Республика Узбекистан
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Registan Square is one of the most famous and magnificent architectural structures in the history of all mankind, which is located in the very heart of the ancient city of Samarkand. Not for nothing Registan is called the decoration of the whole Central Asia. After all, the beauty and grandeur of its architecture are incomparable. Having been here only once, it is impossible to remain indifferent: the feeling of delight and admiration will overflow!
The very name «Registan» in translation into Russian means «a place strewn with sand». However, before this name in the East called the main areas of cities. The area, located in Samarkand, was the most famous of all registers throughout Central Asia. Samarkand Registan is a historical architectural ensemble of XV-XVII (15-17) centuries, which includes three universities of the Middle Ages — madrassas.
In the center of the ensemble is located the madrassah of Tillya-Kari, which was considered the greatest construction of the entire Islamic world. And on each side, opposite each other, towering madrassas of Ulugbek (on the left) and Madrassah Sherdor (on the right). It is worth noting that the entire architectural complex was formed only by 1660, when the construction of the Till-Kari madrassa was completed. Since the construction of all three madrasahs was carried out at different periods.
Madrassah of Ulugbek (1417-1420)
Madrassah of Ulugbek is the oldest madrassah in Registan Square: it was built in the beginning of the XV century, or more precisely, in 1417-1420. The founder of this unique architectural monument is, naturally, Ulugbek himself — the ruler of the Turks from the dynasty of the great Timurids, the scientist-astronomer. Madrasah was decided to be built in the western part of the Registan, on the opposite side a few years later the khanaka of Ulugbek was built, and in the northern part of the square there is a caravanserai. However, the khanaka and the caravan-sarai have not survived until our times, they were destroyed and fell into disrepair two centuries after erection. Later, in their place, the Sherdor Madrassah and Tilla-Kari Madrassah were built.
Madrassah of Ulugbek is one of the best spiritual and educational places of the Islamic East of the XV century, where such outstanding scientists of the time as Kazi-zade ar-Rumi, Al-Kushchi, and even Ulugbek taught themselves.
Madrassah Sherdor (1619-1636)
Madrasah Sherdor was built in the period from 1619 to 1636 in the part of Registan, where previously located khanaka Ulugbek, that is on the opposite side of the Madrassah of Ulugbek. The construction of this mosque began according to the order of the Samarkand ruler Yalangtush Bahadur. The architect who supervised the construction was called Abdul-Jabbar, and the master of decor was Muhammad Abbas. By the way, the name of the madrassa «Sherdor» is translated as «madrasah with lions» or «abode of lions».
Madrassah of Tillya-Kari (1646-1660)
The location of the Till-Kari madrassa coincides with the location of the destroyed Ulugbek caravansary, that is, in the northern part of the Registan Square. The construction of the Till-Kari madrasah began also on the orders of Yalangtush Bahadur exactly 10 years after the construction of the Sherdor Madrassah.
No wonder this madrasah is called «Tillya-Kari», which means «decorated with gold.» The building of the madrassah is very rich in terms of architecture: the walls are decorated with mosaic with geometric and vegetative ornamentation, and a lot of gilding is used in the decoration of the interior.
Madrassah Tillya-Kori was not only a spiritual and educational place where students were trained, it was also used as a cathedral mosque.
The most famous place in the city of Samarkand is, of course, the Registan Square. To date, Samarkand Registan serves as a unique example in the art of urban planning and the standard of architectural design of the main city square. It is worth noting that since 2001 this ensemble with a number of other ancient buildings of the city of Samarkand is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
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